2013 Constitution

The 50-member constitutional committee is done with identifying all the sections of the constitution , and the total number of its 241 atricles.
The section on the state and its basic components includes 51 articles. The section on the rights and freedoms includes 58 articles, and the section on the system of governance includes 132 articles. The articles could have been limited to only 198 articles as was the case in the draft constitution prepared by the committee of experts, but the 50-member committee added 39 new articles not included in the 2012 Constitution. They are mostly included under the section of the rights and freedoms where 18 new articles were added.  17 new articles were added to the basic components' section and 4 added to the system of governance section.
The number of articles has nothing to do though with the amount of freedoms and rights preserved in a constitution. For instance, the 2012 Constitution issued by the Muslim Brotherhood was the longest constitution in Egypt's history in terms of the number. The 2012 Constitution included 236 articles, but was imposed more restrictions on freedoms.
The Constitution of 1930 issued by Ismail Sedki Pasha included 156 articles. It was issued in response to the 1923 Constitution which included 170 articles in order to increase the powers of the king against the powers of the parliament. But the Constitution of 1930, like the 2012 Constitution of the Muslim Brotherhood was brought down after few months.
The 1971 Constitution included 211 articles. The number of articles remained as it is despite introducing catastrophic amendments to it in 2007.
In the 2013 Constitution, the 39 new articles represent a quantum leap in the constitutions of Egypt, where we find the section on freedoms stating for the first time, the State's commitment to rights and freedoms in the international agreements and conventions ratified by Egypt. Some believe that such an article is unnecessary and take it for granted. But the performance of Egypt in international forums under former regimes was contradictory as it participated in the formulation of certain international conventions and at the same time carried out repressive practices. The article states clearly that the state has to abide by the international agreements.
Any reservations expressed by Egypt on some of these conventions are unrealistic. Saying that Egyptians have the right to enjoy freedoms like all other peoples in the world does not mean they will have sex parties!! Those hallucinations are strange and matter only for those preoccupied with jihad marriage and the marriage of minors.
Among the freedoms included in the newly-developed articles is cancelling imprisonment punishment in publication cases. This is not for journalists alone, but for all citizens. Also protecting workers from work risks and providing security and safety for them are included.
The state will be obliged to purchase strategic crops from farmers at affordable prices, and will be committed to establishing a health insurance system to all citizens, and providing suitable pensions for those who reached retirement age.
The state will be committed to allocating 6 percent of the GDP for education and the right to of education will be accompanied with the quality of education according to international standards, and many other rights that would we could never have achieved without the 25 January and June revolutions. This constitution depends on the principles of freedom, democracy, social justice and human dignity to which both revolutions have called.

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